How to Know if Your Kid Has Kidney Problems

Up to 58.3 per million kids develop kidney disease, says the World Kidney Day. Roughly 70% of them, if not treated, may undergo kidney failure by age 20 years. Once your child shows signs of kidney concerns, first consult the best pediatrician in Hyderabad. If needed, the professional may recommend seeing a urologist. Here are the symptoms of some common pediatric kidney problems.

Inborn Kidney Problems

Posterior Urethral Valve Obstruction

This urethral obstruction or narrowing impacts only male babies.

Symptoms may include:

  • An enlarged bladder, possibly noticeable as a big mass through the abdomen
  • Urinary frequency
  • Weak urine stream
  • Painful urination
  • Urinary tract infection (UTI)
  • Wetting pants or bedwetting after the kid has been toilet-trained
  • Trouble urinating
  • Poor weight gain

Severe cases may cause:

  • Bladder dysfunction
  • Hydronephrosis (dilated kidneys)
  • Respiratory distress
  • Vesicoureteral reflux (causing urine to flow back into the kidneys)
  • Impaired renal function and a higher risk of kidney failure

Fetal Hydronephrosis

Here one or both of the kidneys enlarge due to an obstructed urinary tract or vesicoureteral reflux.

Pregnant women may not feel that their fetus has hydronephrosis. Else signs after childbirth may include:

  • Swelling in the kidney region (deep in the mid-abdomen or beneath the rib angle in the back)
  • Reduced urine flow
  • UTI

Polycystic Kidney Disease (PKD)

Here both kidneys develop several fluid-filled cysts which may multiply and enlarge speedily to cause kidney failure. Most types of PKD are genetic.

Kids may have no symptoms or experience:

  • Hypertension
  • Side or back pain
  • Abdominal swelling
  • Fatigue syndrome
  • Kidney damage
  • Blood in the urine
  • UTI

Multicystic Kidney Disease (MKD)

Here, an underdeveloped kidney grows large cysts and finally, stops working. If the other (normal) kidney takes over, children can have regular kidney function.

MKD doesn’t have any signs. It’s usually detected during a prenatal ultrasound or an abdominal mass is found during a routine physical exam.

Other kidney problems at birth include nephrotic syndrome, glomerulonephritis, Wilms tumor, and renal tubular acidosis.

Congenital Urinary Tract Problems

Duplicated Ureters

Here, the baby’s kidney has two ureters in place of one. This may eventually lead to UTIs.

So long as the duplicated ureters drain urine into the bladder, there are usually no signs. When one of the ureters is ectopic, symptoms may include:

  • Hydronephrosis
  • Vesicoureteral reflux
  • UTI
  • Failure to control urination

Horseshoe Kidney

It causes the two kidneys to fuse into an arched structure that may function normally but is more vulnerable to developing future problems.

Children may have no signs or develop:

  • Pain in the belly
  • Nausea
  • Kidney stones (sometimes)

Other Kidney Problems

Kidney Stones

These are hard deposits of acid salts and minerals sticking together in concentrated urine. Unless severe, they may not cause permanent damage.

Symptoms often include:

  • Side or back pain
  • Sudden, sharp abdominal pain
  • Pain during urination
  • Frequent urination
  • Blood in urine


This involves renal inflammation due to an autoimmune disorder (like lupus), an infection, or reasons unknown.

Primary indications are high levels of blood and protein in the urine.

Signs of acute nephritis may include:

  • Pelvic pain
  • Burning or pain while urinating
  • Frequent urination
  • Cloudy urine
  • Renal or abdominal pain
  • Edema (swelling around the face, eyes, ankles, and feet)
  • Fever
  • Vomiting
  • Hypertension


This involves a bladder infection due to bacteria from feces entering the urinary tract through the urethra.

Signs often include:

  • Pain in the bladder, pelvis, lower abdomen, groin, or back
  • Frequent urination, especially at night
  • Pain during urination
  • Blood in the urine
  • Foul-smelling, dark or cloudy urine
  • Bedwetting or wetting the pants, improper feeding, or feeling irritated (for babies)
  • A high temperature or feeling shivery

If recommended by the pediatrician on observing signs of kidney conditions in your kid, visit a pediatric urologist in Hyderabad right away.

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